Commonly found in toiletries like deodorant, over-the-counter medications like antacids, food additives, cookware, and vaccines, aluminum oxidizes the thyroid, inhibits iodide uptake, limits thyroid hormone production, and can mislead the immune system to attack the thyroid, as seen in autoimmune disease.
Cadmium is released via mining and smelting activities and is present in batteries, pigments, plastics, sewage, and phosphate-based fertilizers. Cadmium triggers thyroid enlargement, produces multinodular goiters of the thyroid, reduces thyroglobulin secretion, and can induce thyroid cancer.
One of the earliest heavy metals recognized for its toxicity, Lead remains high in the environment thanks to its use in the paint used in old housing, some metal jewelry, children's toys, mining, and other forms of industrialization. Lead exposure in work environments alone has been linked to reduced thyroid function and increased levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Mercury, found in seafood, dental amalgams, and pollution produced by coal-burning power plants, lowers iodide uptake in the thyroid and prevents thyroid hormone production.
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